I Will be Back

I haven’t left. I am here, and I will be back soon. After a month, after five months, after a year, I don’t know when. But I will be back. I have said what I had to say about the 20th and 21st century Middle East. I will be back when I have something to say, and when I feel like saying something. Because right now I really have nothing to say.

I.A.

The Geopolitics of Islamism

Before WW1 (1914-1918) the Islamists of Africa were supported by the alliance of Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. That makes perfect sense because the Germans and the Austrians wanted to use the Ottoman Caliphate, which was their ally, in order to promote Pan-Islamism in Africa as a means of attacking the English and the French who were controlling Africa. The Germans had almost zero influence in Africa.

Capture.JPG

Map 1 German Empire, Empire of Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire

MapOfEurope 1900.jpg

Map African Colonies ( French colonies with light green and British colonies with pink)

African Colonies.JPG

http://empathosnationenterprises.com/empAthosWebGraphics/AfColony.gif

However the English and the French won WW1, and not only they did not lose Africa, but they also gained the Middle East, which until then was an Ottoman colony. Iraq and Palestine (Israel+Jordan) went to the British sphere of influence, and Syria and Lebanon went to the French sphere of influence.

Map British-French and Russians Zones

Σχέδιο Psykes Picot.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes%E2%80%93Picot_Agreement#/media/File:Sykes-Picot.svg

 

With green on the above map you can see the part that would go to Russia. But Russia did not get her share because the Germans created the Russian Communist Party, and they used the Russians Communists against the Tsarist army. With the help of Germany and Austria the Communists won, and they left the war giving large parts of Russian territory to the Germans, the Austrians and the Ottomans as a payment. See “Germany’s Role in the Rise of Lenin”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/06/05/winston-churchill-on-the-german-support-to-lenin-and-russian-communism/

 

Map

Χάρτης Μέση Ανατολή.JPG

http://static.wixstatic.com/media/3bbf45_b191881d1bbf42089bb157579bc7d3d2.jpg/v1/fill/w_557,h_430,al_c,q_80,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01/3bbf45_b191881d1bbf42089bb157579bc7d3d2.jpg

 

Therefore we should not be surprised that until WW2 the geopolitics of Islamism remains the same, since the British and the French increased their influence in the Muslim World, and Germany was still trying to support the Islamists as a means of fighting them.

That’s why Hitler continued the Kaizer’s policy and he collaborated with the Muslim Brotherhood, which was established in Egypt in 1928 by an enthusiastic Hitler admirer Hassan al-Banna. During the 1920s Kemal Ataturk destroyed Islamism in Turkey, and he made Turkey a secular state.

Moreover, after the ruins of WW1, Kemal Ataturk wanted Turkey to have a balanced position towards Germany and the West. Therefore Turkey could no longer be used by Germany as a springboard to support Pan-Islamism in the Middle East and Africa against the English and the French.

In other words what the Ottoman Caliphate did for Germany during WW1, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt did for Hitler during WW2. See “The Alliance Between Hitler and the Muslim Brotherhood”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/08/18/the-alliance-between-hitler-and-the-muslim-brotherhood/

That’s the situation until the end of WW2. After WW2 Germany is destroyed and the Soviet Union becomes the main opponent of the West. The Soviets will mainly support the socialist dictators in the Muslim World, and these dictators will gradually overturn the pro-Western monarchs in Algerian, Egypt, Libya, Iraq, Syria.

When the socialists will rise to power in the Muslim countries it will be the turn of the Westerners to taste the benefits of supporting the Islamists against their enemies. With the help of Saudi Arabia the West will fight the pro-Soviet socialist dictators, and with the help of the Islamists the Americans will fight the Soviets when the Soviets will invade Afghanistan (1979-1989).

But things are a lot more complicated now. In 1979 radical Islamists will take control of Iran, and there will be Islamists who are supported by Iran and fight the West, and there will be Islamists who are supported by Saudi Arabia and fight the Soviets.

After the fall of the Soviet Union the Americans will try to send the oil and natural gas of Central Asia to the Indian Ocean, which would hurt all the Islamists of the Persian Gulf. China will allow Western companies to go to China, and China will rise, and will start importing more and more oil from the Persian Gulf. The American oil and gas production will increase tremendously, and the Americans will reduce their imports from the Persian Gulf. The Turks want the cheap natural gas of Russia, and Iran and Russia will support the Turkish Islamists who will come to power in 2002. It seems that now it is a lot more difficult for the Americans to cooperate with the Islamists.

But the Muslim Brotherhood still spends huge amounts of money in Europe and United States in order to buy communists. But most of the time the countries that support the Muslim Brotherhood i.e. Qatar, Iran and Turkey, will use these Communists against United States and Europe, and in order to promote their own interests. Qatar is supposed to be the ally of the United States, and it spends billions on American politicians. But Qatar has, at least indirectly, funded many terrorist attacks against the United States.

Now Erdogan dreams of creating again the Ottoman Caliphate, and he wants Turkey to regain her lost territories in the Middle East. But this time the Germans and the Ottomans are not friends anymore. The Germans are promoting the Russian-German pipelines i.e. Nord Stream, and the Ottomans are promoting the Southern Energy Corridor, the Qatar-Turkey, the Iran-Turkey and the Turk Stream pipelines, which are competing pipelines to the German ones.

Map Germans VS Ottomans

Europe.JPG

The Russians have recently made an agreement with the Islamists of Turkey against the United States. An alliance that reminds the alliance that was formed in 1939 between the Nazis and the Communists against the British and the French. The agreement between the Russians and the Islamists of Turkey is targeting the Americans. Except that it is a lot worse than the Nazi-Communist alliance, because the Nazis and the Communists in 1939 had a lot more in common, both in terms of ideology and in terms of economic interests.

But now the Americans are also using the Islamists of Qatar against the Russians. And the Russians are using the Islamists of Iran against the United States. They are competing for influence over the Islamists, but it seems that it is the Russians who are mainly benefiting from their alliance with the Islamists.

The Chinese do not want direct involvement with the Islamists, because they are afraid of the repercussions that this would have at their Muslim province of Xin Jiang.

Things are not as clear as they were before. Until the end of WW2 it was mainly the Germans who were to benefit mostly from the Islamists. After the end of WW2 and the rise of the pro-Soviet socialist dictators it was mainly the Americans who were to benefit from their alliance with the Islamists. Now it seems that the Russians are the ones to benefit from their alliance with the Islamists, due to the war between the United States and the Islamic terror groups like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, ISIS etc. Even though the Muslim Brotherhood (Qatar) is spending huge amounts buying influence in the United States.

But Russia is not a true ally of the Islamists, because Russia does not have the same economic interests with Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Iran and Pakistan. And that’s why we compare the alliance between Russia and the Islamists with the alliance between the Communists and the Nazis. Except that it is even worse.

 

The Alliance Between Hitler and the Muslim Brotherhood

A very nice article from the Wall Street Journal about the connection between Adolf Hitler and Islam. See WSJ “Why Hitler Wished He Was Muslim”, January 2015.

Hitler and the Muslim Brotherhood.JPG

Hitler believed that Islam was a religion for real men that lacked the flabbiness of Christianity and the filthiness of Judaism. The article also says that even though Muslim people fought on both sides of WW2, the Islamists fought mainly on the side of the Nazis. The Nazis even allowed Muslim people to enroll to the SS, and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, a famous Nazi collaborator, was recruiting Muslims for the SS. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was the man who convinced Hitler to exterminate the Jews of Europe, because the Jews who were leaving Europe were ending up in Jerusalem, where the Arabs and the Jews were fighting for Palestine. See “Hitler, Netanyahu and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2015/10/23/netanyahu-hitler-and-the-grand-mufti-of-jerusalem/

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was one of the closest associates of Hassan al-Banna, the man who founded the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928, and who was another famous Nazi collaborator. For al-Banna’s alliance with the Nazis see Wikipedia “Relations between Nazi Germany and the Arab world : Fundamentalist Panislamists”.

The two battles that cost Hitler the Second World WAr were the Battle of El-Alamein (Egypt) and the Battle of Stalingrand (Russia). Therefore it was very normal that the Germans were trying to find allies in Egypt, and the Arab World in general, given that during WW1 the British had liberated the Arabs from the Ottomans, and they had very strong connections in the Arab World.

I believe that Hitler’s admiration for the Islamists and the Muslim Brotherhood was more of a practical thing, because Hitler needed allies in the Middle East to fight the British and the French. And the same is true for the Muslim Brotherhood. The reason the Muslim Brotherhood loved Hitler so much was because its members were hoping that Hitler would exterminate the Jews of the Middle East, and he would also beat the British in Palestine.

What is very interesting is that the Germans were supporting the Islamists in Africa a long time before the Nazis came to power. The reason the Germans were doing that was to fight the English and the French who had colonized Africa. The English were controlling East Africa and the French were controlling West Africa, while the Germans had almost no influence in Africa. And since the Islamists wanted to fight the English and the French in Africa they were a natural ally for the Germans.

Map : African Colonies (French Colonies with light green and British colonies with pink)

African Colonies.JPG

http://empathosnationenterprises.com/empAthosWebGraphics/AfColony.gif

Actually the person who proposed that Germany should support Pan-Islamism in Africa, in order to fight the British and the French, Max von Oppenhaim, was a German Jewish diplomat. We are talking about the early 20th Century Germany which was not anti-Semitic. The main idea of Max von Oppenhaim was that Islamists wanted to fight the Brits and the French, and the Ottomans, who were German allies during WW1, could help the Germans to cause an Islamic revolt against the French and the English in Africa. See Western Journalism “The Unexpected Founding Fathers Of ISIS, And The Shocking Connection To Hitler”, December 2014.

Therefore Hitler’s alliance with the Muslim Brotherhood and the Islamists was nothing new, since it was a tactic which had been used by Germany a long time before the Nazis rose to power.

The Americans used the same tactic when they supported the Islamists against the Soviets in 1979, when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan (1979-1989).

The Russians used the same tactic in Syria, when together with Assad they created the Islamic State to prevent the Americans from finding allies in the Sunni parts of Syria. See “How Putin and Assad Created the Islamic State”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/07/28/how-putin-and-assad-created-the-islamic-state/

 

Articles

 

“Why Hitler Wished He Was Muslim”, January 2015

1st – 8th  Paragraphs

‘It’s been our misfortune to have the wrong religion,” Hitlercomplained to his pet architect Albert Speer. “Why did it have to be Christianity, with its meekness and flabbiness?” Islam was aMännerreligion—a “religion of men”—and hygienic too. The “soldiers of Islam” received a warrior’s heaven, “a real earthly paradise” with “houris” and “wine flowing.” This, Hitler argued, was much more suited to the “Germanic temperament” than the “Jewish filth and priestly twaddle” of Christianity.

For decades, historians have seen Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch of 1923 as emulating Mussolini’s 1922 March on Rome. Not so, says Stefan Ihrig in “Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination.” Hitler also had Turkey in mind—and not just the 1908 march of the Young Turks on Constantinople, which brought down a government. After 1917, the bankrupt, defeated and cosmopolitan Ottoman Empire contracted into a vigorous “Turanic” nation-state. In the early 1920s, the new Turkey was the first “revisionist” power to opt out of the postwar system, retaking lost lands on the Syrian coast and control over the Strait of the Dardanelles. Hitler, Mr. Ihrig writes, saw Turkey as the model of a “prosperous and völkisch modern state.”

Through the 1920s and 1930s, Nazi publications lauded Turkey as a friend and forerunner. In 1922, for example, the Völkischer Beobachter, the Nazi Party’s weekly paper, praised Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the “Father of the Turks,” as a “real man,” embodying the “heroic spirit” and the Führerprinzip, or führer principle, that demanded absolute obedience. Atatürk’s subordination of Islam to the state anticipated Hitler’s strategy toward Christianity. The Nazis presented Turkey as stronger for having massacred its Armenians and expelling its Greeks. “Who,” Hitler asked in August 1939, “speaks today of the extermination of the Armenians?”

This was not Germany’s first case of Türkenfieber, or Turk fever. Turkey had slid into World War I not by accident but because Germany had greased the tracks: training officers, supplying weapons, and drawing the country away from Britain and France. Hitler wanted to repeat the Kaiser’s experiment in search of a better result. By 1936, Germany supplied half of Turkey’s imports and bought half of Turkey’s exports, notably chromite, vital for steel production. But Atatürk, Mr. Ihrig writes, hedged his bets and dodged a “decisive friendship.” After Atatürk’s death in 1938, his successor, Ismet Inönü, tacked between the powers. In 1939, Turkey signed a treaty of mutual defense with Britain, but in 1941 Turkey agreed to a Treaty of Friendship with Germany, securing Hitler’s southern flank before he invaded Russia. Inönü hinted that Turkey would join the fight if Germany could conquer the Caucasus.

As David Motadel writes in “Islam and Nazi Germany’s War,” Muslims fought on both sides in World War II. But only Nazis and Islamists had a political-spiritual romance. Both groups hated Jews, Bolsheviks and liberal democracy. Both sought what Michel Foucault, praising the Iranian Revolution in 1979, would later call the spiritual-political “transfiguration of the world” by “combat.” The caliph, the Islamist Zaki Ali explained, was the “führer of the believers.” “Made by Jews, led by Jews—therewith Bolshevism is the natural enemy of Islam,” wrote Mahomed Sabry, a Berlin-based propagandist for the Muslim Brotherhood in “Islam, Judaism, Bolshevism,” a book that the Reich’s propaganda ministry recommended to journalists.

By late 1941, Germany controlled large Muslim populations in southeastern Europe and North Africa. Nazi policy extended the grand schemes of imperial Germany toward madly modern ends. To aid the “liberation struggle of Islam,” the propaganda ministry told journalists to praise “the Islamic world as a cultural factor,” avoid criticism of Islam, and substitute “anti-Jewish” for “anti-Semitic.” In April 1942, Hitler became the first European leader to declare that Islam was “incapable of terrorism.” As usual, it is hard to tell if the Führer set the tone or merely amplified his people’s obsessions.

Like Atatürk, Hitler saw the Turkish renaissance as racial, not religious. Germans of Turkish and Iranian descent were exempt from the Nuremberg Laws, but the racial status of German Arabs remained creatively indefinite, even after September 1943, when Muslims became eligible for membership in the Nazi Party. As the war went on, Balkan Muslims were added to the “racially valuable peoples of Europe.” The Palestinian Arab leader Haj Amin al-Husseini, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, recruited thousands of these “Musligermanics” as the first non-Germanic volunteers for the SS. Soviet prisoners of Turkic origin volunteered too. In November 1944,Himmler and the Mufti created an SS-run school for military imams at Dresden.

Haj Amin al-Husseini, the founder of Palestinian nationalism, is notorious for his efforts to persuade the Nazis to extend their genocide of the Jews to the Palestine Mandate. The Mufti met Hitler and Himmler in Berlin in 1941 and asked the Nazis to guarantee that when the Wehrmacht drove the British from Palestine, Germany would establish an Arab regime and assist in the “removal” of its Jews. Hitler replied that the Reich would not intervene in the Mufti’s kingdom, other than to pursue their shared goal: “the annihilation of Jewry living in Arab space.” The Mufti settled in Berlin, befriendedAdolf Eichmann, and lobbied the governments of Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria to cancel a plan to transfer Jews to Palestine. Subsequently, some 400,000 Jews from these countries were sent to death camps.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/book-review-ataturk-in-the-nazi-imagination-by-stefan-ihrig-and-islam-and-nazi-germanys-war-by-david-motadel-1421441724

 

“Relations between Nazi Germany and the Arab world : Fundamentalist Panislamists”

Although the Mufti may be the most well-known Arab collaborator with Nazi Germany, there were other influential Arab and Muslim political leaders who made common cause with the Germans. Hassan al-Banna, an ally of the Mufti who founded the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928, openly acknowledged the common interests with National Socialist anti-Jewish and anti-Zionist politics, and actively collaborated with the Nazis:

Al-Banna was also fascinated by Hitler. Both hated Jews, democracy, and Western culture. When the war broke out, the Muslim Brothers promised that they would rise up and help General Rommel and make sure to kill the Allies in Egypt. The Muslim Brothers representative for Palestine, the grand Mufti of Jerusalem (al-Husayni), worked for the Third Reich during the war and played a major role in the recruitment of the SS Arab division that would be known as the “SS Handjar.” The “Himmler to Mufti telegram” of November 1943 attested the alliance between Nazi Germany and the Mufti: “the firm foundation of the natural alliance that exists between the National Socialist Greater Germany and the freedom-loving Muslims of the whole world.” The Muslim Brothers were not prosecuted after the war despite the participation of the Mufti and “freedom-loving Muslims” in the Holocaust. In the second half of the 1930s, the Muslim Brothers were strongly engaged to help the Palestinians. They raised and channelled funds to fight the Jews, and intensified contacts with religious leaders in Palestine. Banna was interned from 1941 to February 1942 due to his “critic” of the British presence. The secret apparatus of the Muslim Brothers bombed British clubs during the Second World War and assassinated Egyptian officials. In 1945, the Palestinian question became even more explosive, and the Muslim Brothers were organizing violent demonstrations against the Jews. Military training centers were set up to send volunteers in Palestine to fight “Zionism.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relations_between_Nazi_Germany_and_the_Arab_world#Fundamentalist_Pan-Islamists

 

“The Unexpected Founding Fathers Of ISIS, And The Shocking Connection To Hitler”, December 2014

6th – 9th Paragraphs

That diplomat was Max Von Oppenheim, born in Cologne in 1860 to a Jewish banking family whose members converted to Catholicism after his birth.

Von Oppenheim traveled throughout the Middle East in the last years of the 19th century, visiting Syria, Mesopotamia (now called Iraq), the Persian Gulf, Morocco, and Egypt. After his return to Germany, he published his observations in a two-volume book. He studied law and, later, Arabic in Egypt, and in 1896 became an attaché at Germany’s embassy in Cairo, Egypt.

During that Egyptian stint, Von Oppenheim authored 467 reports on the Middle East, including a lengthy report on the rise of the Pan-Islamic movement. These influenced and, to an extent, even determined German policies in the region. He eventually became a key adviser to the German emperor Wilhelm.

On the eve of Wilhelm’s visit to the Middle East in 1889, Von Oppenheim recommended that Germany support the emerging Islamist movement. This, he argued, would benefit German interests in the region. On one hand, the Germans were without colonies in the Middle East. On the other, the area’s Muslims sought an end to the dominance of the Christian powers – Great Britain, France, and Russia – in a region with a Muslim-majority population. There was therefore a shared interest. The Muslims alone were not able to bring an end to foreign domination. And Germany was anxious to expand its influence in the Middle East at the expense of the French and British.

10th– 16th Paragraphs

In his report to the emperor on Pan-Islamism, Von Oppenheim explained that the Muslims already had established a Caliphate, an overarching state, in the Middle East in the seventh century and that state had existed for centuries. The German diplomat argued that the Ottoman Turks had managed to breathe new life into this state and had succeeded in attracting Muslim loyalty to the Sultan/Caliph.

The Muslim masses increasingly viewed the Ottoman leader as the protector of Islam and its holy sites, Von Oppenheim wrote. He concluded that if the Sultan would issue a fatwa calling for Jihad, three hundred million Muslims could be counted upon to rise in revolt and put an end to Anglo-French dominance in the Middle East.

The mission, in his words, was therefore “to unleash Muslim fanaticism that would border on madness”.

Von Oppenheim’s plan led to a pact between Germany and the Ottoman Empire. However, the concept of a massive jihad that might have produced a German-Turkish victory over the Allies in the First World War failed completely.

Mainly, this was the result of fundamental errors in his analysis. Von Oppenheim ignored the internal divisions in the Muslim world, for instance. And he over-estimated the extent of Arab acceptance of the Turkish Caliph’s authority.

But along with a group of German Middle East experts, Von Oppenheim succeeded in establishing Islamist groups that did in fact begin to execute the planned Jihad in certain Muslim countries.

In November 1914, he dispatched a 136-page plan entitled “Revolutionizing the Islamic territories of our enemies” to his emperor. The plan was quickly approved and Von Oppenheim’s team was provided with the necessary funds. Shortly afterwards, Von Oppenheim’s terrorist groups began deploying suicide attacks as a means of achieving their goals. In India, for instance, a group of 25 Jihadists attacked British targets.

22nd– 32nd Paragraphs

Following the failure of Von Oppenheim’s plan in World War I, a second German attempt was made by Hitler through his alliance with the Islamist, Haj Amin al-Husseini.

Husseini originally harbored pan-Arab ambitions, aspiring to become the leader of the Arab world. He eventually settled for becoming the Grand Mufti of Palestine and the de facto leader of the Palestinian Arabs.

Husseini and Hitler shared a deep hatred of the Jews and other common interests. Hitler sought an Arab leader who would promote his agenda of world domination in the Middle East. Husseini in turn needed a Western ally who would prevent the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine and put an end to Western domination of Muslim countries.

Husseini’s collaboration with the Nazis is well known. It went well beyond preventing the emergence of a Jewish state in the Middle East. For example, Hitler made the decision to embrace the so-called ‘Entlosung,’ the strategy of systematically exterminating European Jewry, a few hours after a meeting with Husseini. During that meeting, Husseini had exerted pressure on Hitler to solve the “Jewish problem” once and for all.

In 1944, Husseini succeeded in preventing a deal between the Germans and the Allied forces in which 5,000 Jewish children would be exchanged for Allied prisoners of war, and frustrated the escape of 14,000 Jewish children from Hungary. Almost all of these children were later murdered in the Nazi death camps.

Husseini spent much of World War II living in Berlin, establishing his headquarters in a confiscated Jewish mansion. The Nazis provided him with funds to undertake a range of Islamic projects in Europe and beyond.

He developed a plan to establish death camps in Arab countries for the intended extermination of the Jews in the Middle East. This failed because of the 1942 defeat of the advancing German army at El Alamein, Egypt, and the collapse of Hitler’s Africa Korps. Most of the Middle East’s Jews thus escaped the Holocaust.

Husseini escaped prosecution for war crimes after World War II, largely for political reasons. He was thus able to continue to lead the jihad against Israel and keep the Islamist movement alive. In May 1946, carrying a false passport, he escaped from French custody and fled to Egypt. Once in Cairo, he founded a new army – al-Jihad al-Muqaddas – under the leadership of another Nazi collaborator, al-Qawuqii. With a training camp near the Libyan border, its soldiers prepared for the ”struggle against the Zionists” and participated in the War of Independence in 1948.

Following the Arab defeat in the 1948 war, Husseini united the Islamists under his leadership in a new organization called the Islamic World Congress (IWC). Among its other prominent members: Sayyid Qutb, the ideologue of the Muslim Brotherhood; and the Iranian Islamic spiritual leader Abd al-Qasim al-Kashani. One of Kashani’s students was Ruhollah Khomeini who went on in 1979 to lead Iran’s Islamic revolution.

Husseini moved the headquarters of the Islamic World Congress (IWC) to Karachi, Pakistan, in 1949. He appointed Dr. Inamullah Khan as its Secretary General. Khan, known for his hatred of Jews, nevertheless became the recipient of the prestigious 1988 Templeton Prize for Progress. This prize had been awarded in previous years to Mother Teresa and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.

Syrian Islamist Maaruf al-Dawalibi, who had also collaborated with the Nazis, was Husseini’s successor. In 1984, he declared at a United Nations seminar that Hitler had been right when he wanted to exterminate the Jews because of their belief that they were God’s chosen people. In the same speech, he repeated the classic anti-Semitic blood libel that the Talmud commands the Jews to drink the blood of non-Jews at Passover.

http://www.westernjournalism.com/unlikely-founding-fathers-islamic-state/

 

“Muslim Brotherhood and Hitler”

http://www.billionbibles.org/sharia/hitler-muslim-brotherhood.html

 

“Muslim Brotherhood”

13th – 33rd Paragraphs

The Muslim Brotherhood began as a social and religious organization in Egypt whose members regarded Islamas a way of life. Many Syrian supporters founded their own branches in Syria, one of which was the Aleppo branch, founded in 1935. The Aleppo branch eventually became the Syrian headquarters of the Brotherhood. The Brotherhood expanded its political involvement as the Party of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hizb al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun.

The Brotherhood’s founder, al-Banna, was a devout admirer of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. During the 1930s, the Brotherhood became more political in nature and an officially political group in 1939. Over the years, the organization developed an apparatus through which to provide military training to its followers and to engage in political terrorism against Egyptian Coptic Christians and government officials.

In 1942, during World War II, Hassan al-Banna set up more Brotherhood branches in Transjordan and Palestine. The headquarters of the Syrian branch moved to Damascus in 1944. After World War II, Egyptian members took violent action against King Farouk’s government. When the organization was banned in Egypt, hundreds moved to Transjordan. Many also participated in the Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949.

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood initially supported Gamal Abd an-Nasser’s secular government and cooperated with it, but resisted left-wing influences. A Muslim Brother assassinated Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi on December 28, 1948. The Brotherhood was banned, and al-Banna himself was killed by government agents in Cairo in February 1949.

Muslim Brother Abdul Munim Abdul Rauf allegedly tried to kill Nasser on October 26, 1954. The Brotherhood was outlawed again and more than 4,000 of its members were imprisoned, including Sayyid Qutb, who later became the most influential intellectual of the group. He wrote influential books while in prison. More members moved to JordanLebanonSaudi Arabia, and Syria.

The organization opposed the alliance Egypt had with the USSR at the time, and opposed the communist influence in Egypt, to the extent that it was reportedly supported by the CIA during the 1960s.

Nasser legalized the Brotherhood again in 1964, and released all prisoners. After claiming more assassination attempts against him, he had leaders executed in 1966 and imprisoned most others again.

Nasser’s successor in EgyptAnwar Sadat, promised reforms, and that he would implement Shariah. However, Sadat’s peace treaty with Israel in 1979 angered the Brotherhood, which led to his assassination in 1981.

In the 1950s, Jordanian members supported King Hussein of Jordan against political opposition and against Nasser’s attempts to overthrow him. When the King banned political parties in Jordan in 1957, the Brotherhood was exempted.

The Syrian branch was the next to be banned when Syria joined Egypt in the United Arab Republic (UAR) in 1958. The Brotherhood went underground. When Syria left the UAR 1961, the Brotherhood won 10 seats in the next elections. However, the Ba’th coup in 1963 forced them underground once more, alongside all the other political groups.

The appointment of Hafez al-Assad, an Alawite Muslim, as the Syrian president in 1971 angered the Brotherhood even more because the majority of Muslims do not consider Alawites true Muslims at all. Assad initially tried to placate them, but made very little progress. Assad’s support of Maronites in the Lebanese Civil War made the Brotherhood re-declare its jihad. They began a campaign of strikes and terrorist actions. In 1979, they killed 83 Alawite cadets in the Aleppo artillery school. Assad’s attempts to calm them by changing officials and releasing political prisoners did not help. Eventually the army was used to restore order by force.

An assassination attempt against Assad on June 25, 1980, was the last straw. Assad made the Syrian parliament declare Brotherhood membership a capital offense and sent the army against them. In the operation, which lasted until February of 1982, the Syrian army practically wiped out the Brotherhood, killing an unknown but large number of people in the Hama Massacre. The Syrian branch disappeared, and the survivors fled to join Islamic organizations in other countries.

The Saudi Arabian branch convinced king Ibn Saud to let them start the Islamic University in Medina in 1961. After the Six-Day War in 1967, the movement as a whole split into moderates and radicals. The latter faction in Syria declared jihad against the Ba’th party leaders. King Hussein allowed the Jordanian branch to give military training to Brotherhood rebels in Jordan.

In 1973, the Israeli government allowed local leader Ahmad Yassin to run social, religious and welfare institutions among Palestinian Muslims. In 1983, he was arrested for illegal possession of firearms and sentenced to prison. When he was released 1985, he became more popular then ever. When the first Intifadabegan in 1987, he became one of the founders of Hamas.

In 1984, the Muslim Brotherhood was partially reaccepted in Egypt as a religious organization, but was placed under heavy scrutiny by security forces. It remains a source of friction.

In 1989, the Jordanian Brotherhood’s political wing, the Islamic Action Front, won 23 out of 80 seats in Jordan’s parliament. King Hussein tried to limit their influence by changing the election laws, but in the 1993 elections, they became the largest group in the parliament. They strongly opposed the Jordanian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1994.

In the early days of the Soviet-Afghan war, the Muslim Brotherhood was seen as a constituent part of the Afghan anti-communist opposition.

The resistance movement in Afghanistan formed in opposition to the leftist policies of King Zahir Shah. The movement had connections to the Muslim Brotherhood.

The Russian government alleges that the Muslim Brotherhood is a key force in the ongoing Chechen revolt. Russian officials accused the Muslim Brotherhood of planning the December 27, 2002 suicide car bombing of the headquarters of the Russian-backed government in Grozny, Chechnya.

Though the Muslim Brotherhood is now viewed as a more moderate group than other Islamist organizations operation in the Middle East, such as al-Qaida, and has participated in free elections in countries where they were permitted to, messages delivered by the group’s Supreme Guides have made clear the Brotherhood remains committed to militancy. In September 2010, Muhammad Badi’ gave a sermon in which he said, “… the improvement and change that the [Muslim] nation seeks can only be attained through jihad and sacrifice and by raising a jihadi generation that pursues death, just as the enemies pursue life.”

In an effort to possibly hide their militant Islamit rules from the eyes of Western observers, the Brotherhood removed the organizational by-laws from their main English language website in mid-February 2011. The bylaws, which were still available to Arabic readers, have long been a source of discussion and debate because of the group’s stated goal of establishing an Islamic state while uniting Muslims around the world. For example, section E of the bylaws states, “Need to work on establishing the Islamic State, which seeks to effectively implement the provisions of Islam and its teachings.” Likewise, Section G reads as follows: “The sincere support for a global cooperation in accordance with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia … and constructive participation towards building a new basis of human civilization as is ensured by the overall teachings of Islam.”

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html

 

 

The Myth of the Iran-Iraq-Syria Pipeline

Many times in the past I have referred to the Iran-Iraq-Syria pipeline, as a competing pipeline to the Qatar-Turkey one. That pipeline does not exist. This is a shia pipeline which would have to traverse the Sunni parts of Iraq and Syria before reaching the Alawite part of Syria, and it would be at the mercy of the Sunnis.

Map 1

Χάρτης Σουνιτικοί Σιιτικοί Αγωγοί.JPG

Moreover the natural gas would have to be liquefied in Syria, and then go through the process of regasification to bring the natural gas back to its original form in very expensive facilities of the importing country. This is a very expensive process. Moreover the natural gas would have to be carried by very expensive LNG carriers which are a lot more expensive than the traditional oil tankers.

That means the natural gas of a potential Iran-Iraq-Syria pipeline would be constantly under the threat of Sunni sabotage, and its gas would be so expensive that it could not compete with the Russian and Algerian natural gas that reaches Europe through pipeline networks. The Iran-Iraq-Syria was simply an excuse for Assad to refuse the Qatar-Turkey.

The competing pipelines, the ones which could compete with the Russian and Algerian natural gas in Europe, are the Qatar-Turkey-Europe pipeline, which is a Sunni pipeline that would be built in the Sunni Middle East, the Iran-Turkey-Europe pipeline, and the Turkmenistan-Turkey-Europe pipeline.

Map 2

Map of Oil and Gas.jpg

If in your analysis you take into account the Iran-Iraq-Syria pipeline you will be misled to the wrong conclusions. You must take into account the Qatar-Turkey, the Iran-Turkey, the Iraq-Turkey and the Turkmenistan-Azerbaijan-Turkey pipelines. And to a lesser extent the Egypt-Israel-Turkey pipeline.

 

Sean Penn – Muslim Brotherhood

Sean Penn is one of the famous Hollywood actors who are very often used as a weapon against the United States by the Communist dictators of Latin America and the Muslim Brotherhood.

Image Sean Penn – Hugo Chavez

penn chavez.JPG

http://www.newsbusters.org/blogs/nb/noel-sheppard/2011/06/06/sean-penn-defends-hugo-chavez-asks-us-lift-venezuelas-economic

Sean Penn was a friend of Hugo Chavez, the Communist dictator of Venezuela, and he came very close to interviewing Fidel Castro, the Communist dictator of Cuba, at a time Fidel Castro had stopped giving interviews.

Cuba is a satellite of Venezuela and it receives oil subsidies, and I guess the interview was arranged by Venezuelan authorities. In the end Sean Penn interviewed Raul Castro. See Guardian “Sean Penn seeks interview with Fidel Castro in Cuba for Vanity Fair”, October 2009.

Argentina was very often cooperating with the alliance between Muslim Brotherhood (Iran, Qatar, Sudan, Turkey) and the Communist dictators of Latin America (Venezuela, Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua), and as expected Sean Penn supported Argentina and not England over the issue of the Falkland Islands. See Guardian “Sean Penn backs Argentina over Falkland Islands”, February 2012.

Sean Penn is linked to Iran, and as you can read at the following CNN article he played a role when Iran released two Americans who were imprisoned in Iran. See CNN “Sean Penn played a role in hikers’ release from Iran”, September 2011.

You can also see Scarlett Johannson in the picture. For many years Scarlett Johannson was in the leftist pro-Arab charity organization Oxfam.

At the following image you can see Sean Penn at a dinner with the Emir of Qatar.

Penn Johansson Al Thani.JPG

http://www.debbieschlussel.com/36202/sean-penn-scarlett-johansson-fete-al-jazeeras-owners/

I have written about Hezbollah’s cooperation with the drug cartels of Mexico and Colombia, and I have said about how Venezuela allows Hezbollah to use her territory to communicate with the drug cartels. See “The Hezbollah-Al-Qaeda Axis”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/05/22/the-hezbollah-al-qaeda-axis/

Not surprisingly Sean Penn managed to interview the largest drug lord of Mexico, and he was not very tough in the way he described him. I guess the interview was arranged by Venezuela, Cuba or Hezbollah. See Newsmax “7 Reasons Sean Penn Hates America and Why We Hate Him”, January 2016.

As expected Sean Penn was a strong critic of George Bush, and before the American attack to Iraq in 2003 Sean Penn was in Iraq meeting the closest associates of Saddam Hussein. See abcnews “Sean Penn Questions U.S. Policy, Visits Iraq”, December 2002.

Sean Penn is very pro-refugee, which is basically the demographic Jihad promoted by the Muslim Brotherhood. In 2016 Sean Penn made a movie for the refugees in order to indirectly promote the open borders with the Muslim world and to blame the West for the refugees. See Truth Revolt “Sean Penn’s Pro-Refugee ‘Epic’ Bombs at Cannes”, May 2016.

Sean Penn receives millions of dollars for his movies.

Articles

“Sean Penn seeks interview with Fidel Castro in Cuba for Vanity Fair”, October 2009

The actor Sean Penn has flown to Cuba to chase what would be the biggest scoop of his career as a part-time journalist: an interview with Fidel Castro.

The Oscar winner, who last year bagged interviews with Raúl Castro and Hugo Chávez, is reportedly on assignment for Vanity Fair in his quest to meet Cuba’s former president.

In a sign of Havana’s approval the communist party newspaper Granma covered Penn’s visit yesterday to the Island of Youth, where he visited a gallery and met artists.

According to the online magazine tmz.com Penn hopes to ask Fidel about Cuba’s evolving relationship with the Obama administration.

The interview – which has not been confirmed – would be a coup for the Hollywood star’s brand of activist journalism. No western journalist has seen let alone interviewed the 83-year-old leader since an intestinal illness forced him from public view three years ago. Fidel stepped aside from the presidency but remains influential in Cuba – and an iconic, enigmatic figure abroad.

Penn, an outspoken liberal and anti-war activist, took a break from filming to visit Iraq as a journalist in 2004. He followed up with a visit to Iran the following year and then befriended Chávez.

Venezuela’s socialist president, who seldom gives interviews, gave ample access to Penn and arranged an interview with Raúl Castro, Cuba’s even more interview-shy president. The stories were published in The Nation and the Huffington Post.

Critics say the actor is too soft in the interviews and should leave journalism to professionals. “Why does someone like Penn think he can do this job, which isn’t his job?” asked The New Yorker.

Chávez and the Castros also opened their doors to Oliver Stone, another Hollywood leftist. He made sympathetic documentaries about his subjects, a contrast with most US media hostility to the Latin American presidents.

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2009/oct/27/sean-penn-fidel-castro-vanity-fair

 

“Sean Penn backs Argentina over Falkland Islands”, February 2012

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/feb/14/sean-penn-argentina-falkland-islands

 

“Sean Penn Questions U.S. Policy, Visits Iraq”, December 2002

http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/story?id=118513

 

“Actor pours scorn on Bush and Iraq conflict”, May 2003

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/may/31/usa.filmnews

 

“7 Reasons Sean Penn Hates America and Why We Hate Him”, January 2016

Actor Sean Penn has come under heavy fire for setting up a secret interview with Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán, Mexico’s foremost drug lord, in October, just months after he escaped from prison.

Penn detailed the interview in a new article for Rolling Stone published Saturday, one day after Guzmán was re-captured by Mexican authorities.

The episode is just the latest in a long line of Penn’s strange political stunts — antics that are consistently anti-American, and seem to be designed to indulge the actor’s ego more than anything else.

Gathered below are seven ways that Sean Penn’s behavior has shown he hates America, and why he’s drawn just as much hate in return.

  1. He interviewed El Chapo — Vox.com, a liberal political website that is often sympatheticto blaming America for the all of the world’s troubles, could not bring itself to defend Penn during his latest bout of pseudo-journalistic derring-do. “Reading Penn’s article, it’s impossible not to see him as a useful idiot — a painfully naive man who gained access to Guzman because he’s famous, and because Guzman knew Penn would portray him in a flattering light,” Vox wrote. 

The publication concludes that Penn is “an angry critic of what he sees as American hegemony in the world — and, therefore, a self-styled crusader intent on finding out whether the people America calls evil are really as bad as advertised.” 

The liberal Los Angeles Times said much the same: “That Penn seemed to offer only minimal misgivings toward Guzman’s crimes — or, for that matter, seemed oblivious to how the drug kingpin might use the sit-down to enlarge his own myth or folk-hero status — only made things worse.”

  1. He interviewed Raul Castro — In 2008, when Fidel Castro’s brother took over Cuba’s presidency, Sean Penn traveled to Havana to pal aroundwith the dictator. He published an account of the trip in The Nation. Castro expressed interest in having a conversation with President Barack Obama, placing Penn in a de facto diplomatic situation for which he was not trained and had no authority to speak on behalf of America.
    3. He met with Fidel Castro — According to Time magazine, “In the 2008 [Raul Castro]piece, Penn mentions that he had previously met with Fidel Castro. A year later, the actor and liberal activist reportedly flew to Cuba to meet with him again for a Vanity Fair assignment. It’s unclear if that interview ever panned out, since no article was ever published.”
    4. He befriended and defended Hugo Chavez — According to CNN, Sean Penn traveled to South America several times to meet with Venezuelan dictator Hugo Chavez. After Chavez died in 2013, Penn said, “Today the people of the United States lost a friend it never knew it had. And poor people around the world lost a champion. I lost a friend I was blessed to have.” 

He also suggested anyone who called Chavez a dictator should be jailed: “Every day, this elected leader is called a dictator here, and we just accept it, and accept it. And this is mainstream media. There should be a bar by which one goes to prison for these kinds of lies,” he told Bill Maher in 2010, according to The Guardian.
The U.K. newspaper also reported that Penn, Oliver Stone, and Danny Glover, have all expressed support for the socialist dictator, and “have remained steadfast” in that support through several humanitarian disasters the country has faced.
5. He insulted and lectured President Bush — In 2002, Penn spent $56,000 to publish an open letter in The Washington Post criticizing President George W. Bush. The letter included personal insults like, “You lead, it seems, through a blood-lined sense of entitlement.” The New York Daily News reported that Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez later used Penn’s letter to trash the U.S. in some of his own public speeches.
6. He met with one of Saddam Hussein’s top aides — According to the New York Post, “During the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the two-time Oscar winner infamously traveled to Baghdad to — in his words — ‘pursue a deeper understanding of the conflict’ and ‘find my own voice on matters of conscience.'” While there, he reportedly met with Hussein’s then-Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, who would eventually surrender to U.S. forces and be found guilty of past murders and crimes against humanity.
7. He seemingly sided with Argentina regarding the Falklands — According to CNN, “As Argentina and the United Nations squared off over the [Falkland Islands] territory, which Argentina calls Las Malvinas, Penn seemed to take the South American country’s side. He reportedly described Prince William’s 2012 deployment there on a military mission as ‘unthinkable.’ And on a visit to South America, he called the islands the Malvinas, which sparked criticism of the actor on the other side of the Atlantic.”
http://www.newsmax.com/TheWire/sean-penn-america-el-chapo/2016/01/11/id/709003/

 

Ο Σον Πεν και η Σκάρλετ Γιόχανσον καλεσμένοι του Εμίρη του Κατάρ

Sean Penn & Scarlett Johansson Fete Al-Jazeera’s Owners

http://www.debbieschlussel.com/36202/sean-penn-scarlett-johansson-fete-al-jazeeras-owners/

 

“Sean Penn played a role in hikers’ release from Iran”, September 2011

1st, 2nd Paragraphs

Actor Sean Penn helped play a role in securing this week’s release of two U.S. hikers imprisoned in Iran for more than two years, his representative confirmed Friday.

The report was first published by the Reuters news agency, which cited a source close to the release process as saying that Penn flew to Venezuela months ago to speak about the hikers’ plight with President Hugo Chavez, an ally of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

http://edition.cnn.com/2011/09/23/showbiz/sean-penn-hikers/

 

“Sean Penn, Michael Moore and Oliver Stone pay tribute to Hugo Chávez”

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/mar/06/hugo-chavez-hollywood-tribute

 

“Sean Penn’s Pro-Refugee ‘Epic’ Bombs at Cannes”, May 2016

http://www.truthrevolt.org/news/sean-penns-pro-refugee-epic-bombs-cannes-no-i-mean-really-bombs

 

“The Hezbollah-Al-Qaeda Axis”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/05/22/the-hezbollah-al-qaeda-axis/

Quentin Tarantino – Muslim Brotherhood

I saw “The Hateful Eight”, which is one more crappy movie from Quentin Tarantino. Another crappy Tarantino movie full of violence and socialist propaganda.

The Hateful Eight

Capture.JPG

The time is an effort to make black Americans hate white Americans for the way they were treated during the previous centuries. The movie comes to the theatres when the communist terrorist organization Black Lives Matter is asking for compensations to be paid to black Americans. The Communist terrorists of Black Lives Matter ask black people to kill American policemen.

The terrorist organization Black Lives Matter is a very precious tool for the Islamists and the Communists who are fighting the United States. In United States there are not many Muslims, and the Islamists and the Communist dictators of Latin American cannot count on Islamists to fight America. So they are using Hollywood and the American academics to make black Americans hate white Americans, in order to cause a civil war in United States.

Quentin Tarantino is getting millions of dollars for his movies, and he is promoting the Black Lives Matter propaganda, calling American policemen “murderers”.

Image Quentin Tarantino

tarantino.JPG

The unions of American policemen asked their members to boycott Tarantino’s movies. See Reuters “Tarantino says won’t be intimidated over movie boycott calls”, November 2015.

See also the articles of the Daily Caller below.

Unfortunately if you only read the New York Times, the Guardian, the Washington Post etc, you will have a wrong view of what is happening. You need to read Wall Street Journal, the Washington Times, the National Review, the Washington Institute etc, if you want to understand the propaganda used against the United States by the Communist dictators of Latin America and the Islamists. See “The Financing of Hollywood’s Socialist Propaganda”.

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/05/12/the-financing-of-hollywoods-socialist-propaganda/

In “Hateful Eight” Tarantino is referring constantly to the way white people were treating black people, and he does it so well that many black people will leave the theatre with their hearts full of hate for white Americans.

As expected Tarantino thinks Obama is a fantastic president. See the Daily Caller “Quentin Tarantino: ‘Obama Is Fantastic”, August 2015.

Obama is the son of a black Muslim immigrant from Africa, who became the President of the Untied States. And Obama says that racism is in the DNA of American people. That’s why Tarantino likes Obama so much. They both hate American people so much. In just 8 years Obama doubled the national debt of the United States. Doubling the national debt is a much greater threat than Al-Qaeda for the United States.

 

Articles

“Tarantino says won’t be intimidated over movie boycott calls”, November 2015

http://www.reuters.com/article/usa-police-tarantino-idUSL1N12Y3PI20151103

“Quentin Tarantino Calls Cops ‘Murderers’ At Anti-Police Rally”, October 2015

Quentin Tarantino called the cops to his Los Angeles home just days before he fired up an anti-cop rally when he labeled police as “murderers.” (RELATED: Quentin Tarantino Calls Cops ‘Murderers’ At Anti-Police Rally)

The Los Angeles Police Department responded to a call at the director’s home after he found an intruder in his back yard. Tarantino told the man to leave, and he called the cops after the intruder wouldn’t.

TMZ reports that the cops arrived minutes later and “talked to the man without incident

This was 13 days before Tarantino attended an anti-police brutality rally in Washington Square Park in New York City.
When I see murders, I do not stand by,” Tarantino said. “I have to call a murder a murder and I have to call the murderers the murderers

“I’m a human being with a conscience. And if you believe there’s murder going on then you need to rise up and stand up against it. I’m here to say I’m on the side of the murdered.” (RELATED: Quentin Tarantino Backtracks: ‘All Cops Are Not Murderers’)

An insider at the LAPD told TMZ that although they think Tarantino is “an ass,” they will continue to respond to calls at his home.
http://dailycaller.com/2015/10/25/quentin-tarantino-calls-cops-murderers-at-anti-police-rally/

 

“Quentin Tarantino Called Cops Days Before Attending Anti-Police Rally”
http://dailycaller.com/2015/11/04/quentin-tarantino-called-cops-days-before-attending-anti-police-rally/

 

“Quentin Tarantino: ‘Obama Is Fantastic”, August 2015

http://dailycaller.com/2015/08/24/quentin-tarantino-obama-is-fantastic/

 

“Quentin Tarantino Blames ‘White Supremacy’ For Police Brutality”, April 2015

Quentin Tarantino says he was at an “anti-police brutality rally” because there is a “problem of white supremacy in this country.”

Appearing on MSNBC’s “All In with Chris Hayes” Wednesday, Tarantino claimed that he was “surprised” by the reactions from police unions who called for boycotts of his upcoming movie because “I was under the impression I was an American and that I had First Amendment rights and there was no problem with me going to an anti-police brutality protest and speaking my mind.”

Police unions across the country called for a boycott of Tarantino films due to the director insisting, “When I see murders, I do not stand by. I have to call a murder a murder and I have to call the murderers the murderers.” (RELATED: Quentin Tarantino Calls Cops ‘Murderers’ At Anti-Police Rally)

Tarantino explained that he was at the rally, put on by Rise Up October because he agrees with there messages and “ultimately what I feel is a problem of white supremacy in this country.”

http://dailycaller.com/2015/11/04/quentin-tarantino-blames-white-supremacy-in-america-for-police-brutality-video/

 

 

The Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814

With the “French and Indian War” of 1754-1763 the British defeated the French, and most of the French colonies of North America became British colonies. See “French and Indian War” (1754-1763).

Map American Colonies

American Colonies.JPG

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/c2/ef/e0/c2efe025fbcb284759a85e609dc92afb.jpg

The British believed that a part of the cost of the Anglo-French War, and the increased military cost of protecting the colonies, should be partially covered by their American citizens with increased taxation. However the Americans were not at all happy with the prospect of increased taxation, and with the help of the French they started the American Revolutionary War, and they indeed gained their independence. See Wikipedia “American Revolutionary War” (1775-1783)

The wars with the British, and the large military support to the American Independence War, the French economy collapsed and the French revolution broke out in 1789. See Wikipedia “French Revolution” (1789).

Napoleon, a military officer and a hero of the French Revolution, became the new dictator of France. Napoleon was the Hitler of 19th Century, and with his great army he managed to conquer most of Europe.

At the time Germany was a sum of small states, and the great powers that Napoleon had to face were Great Britain, Russia and Austria. Napoleon tried to assert himself on all of them.

Map Europe 1815

Europe_1815_map_en.png

In 1805, at the Battle of Trafalgar, the British destroyed Napoleon’s Navy, and Great Britain became the undisputed greatest naval power of Europe and the world. After Trafalgar Napoleon had no hope of defeating the English with his superior army, because after the destruction of his navy he did not have the means to invade Great Britain. See Wikipedia Battle of Trafalgar”.

The same year, in 1805, with the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon defeated the Russian and Austrian armies, and France became the undisputed greatest military power of Europe. See Wikipedia “Battle of Austerlitz”.

Therefore in 1805, with the Battles of Trafalgar and Austerlitz, Great Britain and France became the greatest naval and military powers of Europe respectively. France could no longer defeat Great Britain in the seas and Great Britain could no longer defeat France in Europe.

In 1806 Napoleon used his superior army to forbid the other European countries from importing British goods, in an attempt to develop the French industry and to weaken the Brits. The Russians, and other Europeans, who were importing goods from Great Britain, were not pleased with Napoleon’s Continental System. See Wikipedia “Continental System”.

To retaliate, the British used their superior navy to forbid the Americans from importing French goods and from exporting raw materials to France. The Americans were not pleased at all with the restrictions imposed on them by the British, because these restrictions hurt their economy.

At some point the Russians had enough with Napoleon, and they abandon Napoleon’s embargo on British goods, and they resumed trading with the British. To retaliate, Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, but like Hitler in 1941, he lost his army.

The British also had to fight a war in 1812 with the Americans as a result of the trade restrictions they had imposed on them. See Wikipedia  “War of 1812” (Anglo-American War 1812-1814).

Once Napoleon was defeated, the European powers wanted to establish a new world order which would prevent a single European power from conquering Europe, like Napoleon had just done. Their main worry was to strengthen France’s neighbors i.e. the Netherlands and Belgium at the North, Italy at the South, and Prussia at the West.

At the Congress of Vienna the Prussians (Germans) and the Russians agreed that Prussia would take Saxony and Russia would take Poland, something that alarmed the British and the Austrians, because they thought that Russia would become very strong if she was to annex Poland. Great Britain and Austria were ready to ally with the defeated France in order to stop Russia from taking Poland, and the negotiations came close to collapse.

In the end diplomacy won and the great powers agreed on a new European order which gave Europe peace and prosperity for one hundred years, until World War 1 broke out in 1914.

Map

Χάρτης Ευρώπης 1815.JPG

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Map_congress_of_vienna.jpg

 

Article

“French and Indian War” (1754-1763)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_War

“American Revolutionary War” (1775-1783)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War

“French Revolution” (1789)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution

“Battle of Trafalgar” (1805) (Anglo-French Naval Battle)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar

Battle of Austerlitz (1805) (France VS Rus+Austr)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Austerlitz

“Continental System” (1806)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_System

“The Continental System (1806-1807)”

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/napoleonic/section4.rhtml

“War of 1812” (Anglo-American War 1812-1815)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_1812

 

10 Things You Didn’t Know About the Congress of Vienna that Influence Us Today

5th Paragraph

First and foremost, the Congress statesmen desired a territorial settlement that would preserve the peace. Since they saw the greatest threat to Europe as coming from France, they surrounded her with a series of buffer states: Belgium was united with the Netherlands to the northeast; the Italian state of Piedmont was given control of Genoa to the south; and Prussia was awarded the Rhineland to the west. All the states of Europe were invited to sign the Vienna “Final Act,” making it the cornerstone of public law in Europe. No war between any of the great powers occurred for the next 40 years, until the Crimean War, and no major war on the scale of the Napoleonic Wars took place until the outbreak of World War I a century later.

9th Paragraph

The allied powers established the principle of freedom of navigation on major European waterways, and established the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine, arguably the oldest working international commission still in existence http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/158263

“The Causes of the French Revolution”

https://iakal.wordpress.com/2016/04/28/the-causes-of-the-french-revolution-1789/

“The war of 1812 (1809-1815)”

1st, 2nd Paragraphs

Thomas Jefferson served his second term as US President from 1804 to 1808. During his term, in 1805, the world balance of power shook as Admiral Nelson’s ships beat Napoleon’s navy at the Battle of Trafalgar, and as Napoleon bested the allied Russo- Austrian forces at Austerlitz that same year. France now had unquestionable control of the European continent, and Britain, held unquestionable mastery of the seas. For the next decade, neither power would seek to challenge the other in their element. The two European powers took to fighting each other indirectly, through economic warfare. Napoleon, hoping to strangle Britain’s economy by preventing British goods from being exported to Europe, closed off all European ports in his Continental System.

As a countermeasure, in 1806 Britain passed the Orders in Council. According to these regulations, US ships could not land at a European port without first stopping at a British port. Napoleon retaliated with a harsh measure, demanding the seizure of any ship that landed in Europe after stopping in Britain. The warring French and English economic measures wreaked havoc with the American economy.

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/warof1812/section1.rhtml

“Napoleonic Wars and the Economy”

http://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/economy/napolean-wars-economy.php

“The Continental System (1806-1807)”

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/napoleonic/section4.rhtml

“The Congress of Vienna” (1814-1815)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Vienna